Anyone who has used the Internet for a while realizes it doesn't always work as consistently as we would like. Not unlike many highways, it seems there are frequent potholes, traffic tie-ups, and endless construction.
This results in a litany of questions -
This brief tutorial describes how to use the tools in IPNetMonitorX to identify, report, and get around some of these common problems.
The Internet is actually a network of thousands of privately run networks using different equipment with only minimal coordination needed between them. This minimal coordination gives the Internet the ability to expand and evolve rapidly since almost anyone can add their network to the Internet. It can also lead to problems when some piece of equipment you know nothing about breaks down or coordination fails.
To manage this vast enterprise, the Internet is organized into hierarchical sections or domains.
Message processing computers called "Routers" or "Gateways" are used to connect individual networks together, with specialized Gateways used at exchange points where different carriers or service providers can exchange traffic for their respective networks.
In order to communicate with another computer on the Internet, your computer will normally go through four steps:
A problem might occur at any of these stages. The tools in IPNetMonitorX can help you to quickly identify if there is a problem and where.
If you experience trouble or excessive delays in accessing a service on the Internet, a good first step is to test if there is a network problem. This is what the Ping tool is for.
The Test Connectivity tool can be used to verify the following information:
(1) Are you able to lookup the address of the service you are trying to access. If you type the name of the host in the target field and press return, the tool will contact your Domain Name Server to lookup the corresponding address. If there is no response within a reasonable amount of time, or no host name is found, the next step is to check your connection to the Domain Name server. Verify in the Network Preferences panel that you have specified the correct name servers for the service provider you are using, and try pinging to their IP addresses directly.
If there is still no response and you are sure you are using the correct name server (because it has always worked before), the name server could be down, or your service provider may have a local routing problem. Press Cmd-Option-T to do a Trace Route to your name server (refer to the next section for more information on Trace Route). If you see a response from one or more routers, your connection to your ISP is working but there appears to be local routing problem. You might try disconnecting (hanging up or power cycling connection equipment) and connecting a few more times to see if the problem corrects itself or if you can identify a pattern (the TraceRoute stops responding after a specific router). Copy the Trace Route results and contact your service provider, they will probably be very interested to see your Trace Route results.
(2) Are you able to reach the remote host you are trying to access. If one or more echo response packets are received, this means the remote host is reachable. Perhaps the specific server software on the remote host is down. If the problem is not fixed in a reasonable amount of time, you can try sending mail to the organization that maintains the host or server. If you don't know who to send mail to, you may be able to look it up using the "Who Is" tool described later in this document. If no responses are received, this usually means the remote host is currently unreachable. Press Cmd-Option-T to begin a Trace Route to help you further isolate the problem.
(3) Is there excessive delay or packet loss on route to the service your are trying to access. The example above shows the round trip delay is around 0.08 seconds which is reasonable for a broadband cable modem connection. Packet loss was 10%. Some packet loss is normal due to congestion, but if losses exceed 20% for several minutes or longer, this could indicated a more serious problem (and performance will degrade badly).
Once you identify what appears to be a connectivity problem, the next step is to locate the problem or isolate it in more detail. Pressing Cmd-Option-T from any IPNetMonitorX window will display the Trace Route tool so you can initiate a Trace Route to the corresponding address if any.
If we noticed a somewhat longer round trip delay than expected in our Ping test. The Trace Route tool shows the sequence of routers our message passes through and the approximate round trip time to each one. [The time shown is the average round trip time in seconds from three attempts to solicit a "time limit exceeded" response from each router. Some routers do not respond consistently to this condition, and the actual time may vary widely from one packet to the next. Packets may even take a different route from one trial to the next which is indicated by more than one row with the same Hop number. To get a more accurate reading, you can double-click on any row to start a ping test to that address].
If the trace continues for several rows with no responses received (indicated by all red X's in the Received column), this may indicate the message stopped being properly forwarded before reaching its destination, or the organizations internal network is hidden (prevented from sending time limited exceeded responses). In this example, I originally selected a "UDP Trace" which could not resolve the destination, but since the previous Ping (ICMP echo request) worked, I decided to try an ICMP trace as shown above. If the ping and trace had failed to complete, the last router shown is most likely the one that was unable to forward the packet correctly. If this problem persists, you should report it to the appropriate network administrator. To find out who this is, click on the row containing the last IP Address and Name found, and press Cmd-Option-W to invoke the "Who Is" tool described below. [If you are able to ping the destination but the trace doesn't stop, this could mean the destination is not responding to the condition that indicates the trace is complete (port unreachable). Not all IP implementations respond consistently.]
Another problem you might encounter is a "routing loop" where a router at a later hop forwards the message to a router from an earlier hop. In this case, each router thinks the other is closer to the destination so they forward the message back and forth until it times out. Again, if this problem persists, you should report it to the appropriate network administrator.
Once you have isolated the problem to a specific network, and determined it is serious enough to justify reporting to a network administrator, you need to find out who this is.
"Who Is" searches the InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) Database of registered names allowing you to find the organization and administrative contact responsible for networks with registered domain names.
For example, if we had discovered a routing problem at "verio.net", we could use "Who Is" to find out who is responsible for "verio.net". The information returned will normally include the email address of an administrative contact to be notified in case of connectivity problems.
When you decide to report a problem, it is important to include enough information for the network administrator to figure out what went wrong. Usually, the Trace Route window will provide exactly the information a network administrator needs. Click on a row in the Trace Route window, choose Select All followed by Copy, and then paste the results into your email message to the appropriate network administrator (see example below).
To: LIMAN@SUNET.SE (Technical Contact: nordu.net)
Dear Network Administrator,
I believe I have found a routing problem in your network. The attached Trace Route shows the problem. There is a routing loop starting at hop 14.
Hop Sent Received Seconds IP Address Name
1 YYY YYY 0.15 220.127.116.11 dial-12.mbo.ma.ultra.net
2 YYY YYY 0.15 18.104.22.168 un-gw-3.mbo.ma.ultra.net
3 YYY YYY 0.16 22.214.171.124 infra-w-4.mbo.ma.ultra.net
4 YYY YYY 0.15 126.96.36.199 agis-ultra.boston.agis.net
5 YYY YYY 0.19 188.8.131.52 a0.1008.washington2.agis.net
6 YYY YYY 0.25 184.108.40.206 mae-east.agis.net
7 YYY YYY 0.26 220.127.116.11 h0-0.trenton1.agis.net
8 YYY YYY 0.24 18.104.22.168 h0-0.pennsauken1.agis.net
9 YYY YYY 0.20 22.214.171.124 sl-pen-2-f4/0.sprintlink.net
10 YYY YYY 0.27 126.96.36.199 icm-pen-2-f1/0.icp.net
11 YYY YYY 0.31 188.8.131.52 icm-uk-1-h0/0-t3.icp.net
12 YYY YYY 0.44 184.108.40.206 icm-stockholm-1-h0/0-e3.icp.net
13 YYY YYY 0.30 220.127.116.11 syd-gw.nordu.net
14 YYY YNY 0.34 18.104.22.168 fi-gw.nordu.net
15 YYY YYY 0.30 22.214.171.124 syd-gw.nordu.net
16 YYY YYY 0.34 126.96.36.199 fi-gw.nordu.net
17 YYY YYY 0.30 188.8.131.52 syd-gw.nordu.net
18 YYY NYY 0.34 184.108.40.206 fi-gw.nordu.net
Thank you for your attention to this matter.
[Always include your name and email address to be sure the network administrator can contact you for more information if needed.]
The better you can describe the problem and report it to the right person, the faster it is likely to get corrected.
It's all very nice to report problems to the right person, but I have work to do, how can I get around these problems? This is where the creative art of using the Internet comes in. Depending on what the problem is, there are a number steps you may be able to use to get around it. This section will describe some of them. You'll probably discover others.
The first thing to realize is that the Internet is not a carefully regulated utility like the telephone or electric company, and will not approach their reliability for some years to come. Besides being a relatively new technology that's evolving and growing rapidly, the original Internet was designed around the idea of sharing resources to provide low cost universal access to as many computers as possible. The design trades off guaranteed reliability in favor of cost and simplicity (this is simple? :-). You can use as much bandwidth as you can get, but nothing is reserved or guaranteed. [This difference in design philosophy has led some people to mistakenly view the Internet as "free". This is incorrect. It still costs money to provide network bandwidth and storage.]
If Internet access is critical to your work, look for a service provider with connections to more than one backbone carrier, and consider signing up with more than one provider yourself. If the site you dial into is frequently busy, consider getting an extended calling plan so you can dial in to more than one POP (Point Of Presence) site.
If you are unable to send mail or access some other service through the normal server you use, try using another one. Some ISPs provides multiple SMTP (outgoing mail) servers for different realms, or you might have a ".mac" or dialup account in addition to your primary ISP account. If one server becomes unavailable, you may be able to use another one successfully.
Think about what you are trying to accomplish. There are often alternate servers (mail, ftp, news, etc.) that can help you get the information you need.
Some problems might be with your own computer. For example, the local Domain Name Resolver (DNR) might have stale information preventing some host name from being properly resolved. In this case you might solve the problem by flushing the DNR cache.
Or you might have just relocated your laptop or re configured some network equipment and still be using a previous IP address which is no longer valid. In this case you might solve the problem by forcing your DHCP lease to be renewed.
If you notice your Internet service is frequently interrupted at certain time each day, you might check to see when your DHCP lease expires.
If you notice you are not getting the kind of performance you believe you should for the type of connection you are using, you can use the TCP Info tool to see how efficiently TCP is transferring data. If you notice significant duplicate or retransmit data is consuming precious bandwidth, you can use the Link Rate tool to calculate an optimum TCP Window size (upper and lower bound).
Want to know your current public IP address or check your current interface? Use the Interface Info tool.
How do you tell if two IP addresses are on the same network? This is a good use for the Subnet Calculator (it also serves as a convenient scratch pad). Press Cmd-Option-S from any IPNetMonitorX window to invoke the Subnet Calculator with the corresponding IP address if any. The Subnet Calculator will determine the default mask for this class of IP address and separate the address into its network and host parts. Two IP addresses are on the same network if they have the same network number. [Determining the correct Mask is more complicated if subnetting or Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) is used, but that is beyond the scope of this guide.]
As you begin to learn more about how the Internet and your own equipment normally works, you will be able to find and correct more of these problems as well. The Monitor tool is especially helpful for this because it lets you get a visual sense for how things should look when everything is working properly. The probe for the Monitor tool is actually inserted between IP and the Data Link Provider. If you suddenly notice there is no receive data, or long delays, you can begin isolating the problem immediately.
IPNetMonitorX includes extensive on-line help for each tool that explains the controls in the window along with advanced features that can save you time in collecting information or isolating problems. Use the Help menu or help button in the lower left corner of most tools when you have a question about how something works. The tools are designed to let you see network behavior and teach how things work so you can recognize problems when something goes wrong. The Launch palette shows the available tools and provides a convenient starting point
I hope you've found these tools and hints useful. Whether you're a real expert, or someone just starting out, I'd welcome your comments and suggestions. You can email me at psichel "at" sustworks "dot" com.
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